• Fourth to 12th Grade

     By fourth grade, students move from "learning to read" to "reading to learn." If they are still struggling readers at this point, they will often have great difficulty with reading comprehension, simply because they are using most of their brainpower just to decode single words and therefore have little to nothing available for understanding what they've just read.

    Older students may show these additional clues:


    Has a history of reading and spelling difficulties
    Avoids reading aloud
    Reads most materials slowly; oral reading is labored, not fluent
    Avoids reading for pleasure
    Lacks a strategy to read new words
    Oral reading filled with substitutions, omissions, mispronunciations and disregard for punctuation;
    May have inadequate vocabulary
    Uses imprecise language, such as vague references to stuff or things instead of the proper name of an object
    Not being able to find the exact word, such as confusing words that sound alike: saying tornado instead of volcano, substituting lotion for ocean, or humanity for humidity
    Mispronunciation of names of people and places; tripping over parts of words
    Difficulty spelling phonetically
    Difficulty learning suffixes and prefixes, root words, and other reading strategies
    Good written expression when content is more important than spelling
    Poorer performance on multiple choice tests than other types of tests
    Inability to finish tests on time
    Good math skills, but difficulty with word problems
    Difficulty learning a foreign language
    Difficulty learning and reading the written portion of music