Second to 3rd Grade
In addition to the previous clues, we often see these difficulties in second and third grades:
Very slow progress in acquiring reading skills
Lack of a strategy to read new words; wild guesses or relies on context in story
Inability to read small function words such as "that", "an", "in", etc.
Letter/sound confusions or reversals past the end of 2nd grade
History of difficulty pronouncing words (i.e. busgetti for spaghetti, mawn lower for lawn mower)
Stumbling on reading multisyllable words
Fracturing words; omitting parts or vowels as if someone bit a hole in the middle of the word
Difficulty spelling phonetically (by sound)
Reads dysfluently (choppy and labored); terrific fear of reading out loud
Oral reading that lacks voice and inflection
Speech that is not fluent; pausing and hesitating, lots of "ums"
Use of imprecise language; using "stuff" or "things" instead of the proper word
Not being able to find the exact word; saying volcano instead of tornado, lotion instead of ocean, etc.
Needs extra thinking time to summon an oral response
Difficulty remembering rote pieces of information (rote memory), such as times tables